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Martes, 09 Enero 2018 19:49

MARTIAL ARTS TRAINING / Entrenamiento de artes marciales

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By Sport Fitness Advisor

Martial arts training will vary greatly from discipline to discipline. By understanding the physiological demands and movement patterns within the specific disciplines, and profiling elite martial artists, a suitable sport-specific conditioning program can be designed.

Not all exercises and modes of training are suitable for all martial artists. A comparison of two of the most popular disciplines (both Olympic events) demonstrates why:

Taekwon-do

The most popular martial art in the world, Taekwon-do is characterized by poomses – a series of movement sequences involving punching, kicking, blocking, jumping, twisting and leaping performed at high intensity (1). At an Olympic level, bouts in Taekwon-do involve 3-5 seconds of high intensity activity interspersed with lower intensity periods. During each 2-minute round heart rate can reach 100% maximum and the lactate response is high. Anaerobic power and anaerobic endurance must be excellent allowing competitors to repeat high intensity bouts of activity with minimal rest periods (2,3).

Aerobic endurance, while average in Taekwon-do athletes is less important than anaerobic endurance. In fact studies have shown that Taekwon-do practice has a minimal effect on cardiovascular fitness (1,2,4). Maximal strength is less important than explosive power.

Functional flexibility is essential in all martial arts training and disciplines. Functional in this context, simply means flexibility that can be applied to competition. For example, a Taekwondo competitor may be able to perform floor splits but lack strength and power in the hip flexors when raising the leg above 90 degrees.

Conditioning for Taekwon-do should develop functional flexibility and maintain a low body fat percentage (1,2). It should also develop explosive power and limb speed over maximal strength and a high level of anaerobic or power endurance is crucial.

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